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Back in the 1990s when I was in my early teens, I was sent to the school office at Hoda Girls Middle School for being found in possession of a Michael Jackson videotape.


The school counselor forced to deal with me pulled her headscarf forward and glanced warily at the videotape on her desk. “Do you know this singer? Does anybody know whether he is a man or a woman?” she asked, not waiting for an answer before continuing, “they live like animals. They only want to satisfy their sexual urges. It makes no difference whether they sleep next to a man or a woman. They don’t care if they have babies from dogs or…”

She lowered her voice and asked me: “Did you know that this very same singer or dancer or whatever you want to call him has relations with animals?” She pronounced the sentence as though she knew every detail of Michael Jackson’s relations with animals. It was the first time that I had ever heard about bestiality, something that according to my counselor was very common in the West.译文来源:龙腾网 HTTP://WWW.LTAAA.COM


I thought back to that moment in the school office when I read statements this week by Mehdi Bayati, the cleric who directs Iran’s Strategic Center for Chastity and Modesty. Back when I was in middle school, both my religion teacher and that school counsellor dedicated long hours to how Western men and women have lost their taste for one another, how they are emotionally broken and have turned to animals to satisfy their desires. All this was meant to encourage young students to observe the Islamic hejab, instilling fears in what would become of a society in which women were not sufficiently chaste.

当我读到这周Mehdi Bayati,一个指导伊朗的贞洁和谦逊的战略中心的牧师的报告时我回想起了在校办的那个时刻。在我念中学时,我的宗教老师和辅导员都长时间的专注于西方的男女是怎么失去对彼此的审美的,情感是怎么破裂的和怎么满足自己的欲望转向于动物的。所有的这一切是为了鼓励年轻的学生去观察穆斯林的面纱,逐渐灌输去恐惧一个女人不够纯洁的社会。


Without hejab, deviance creeps in



Mehdi Bayati has been putting forward the same argument as my middle school teachers. “The growth of feminism in the West and the fact the 60 percent of Western women prefer to sleep with dogs rather than men is the result of the absence of hejab and the diminished threshold of women’s sexual arousal,” he told the Resa News Agency, run by the Qom seminary.

Mehdi Bayati一直在谈的的论点和我的初中老师们不谋而合。“西方女权运动的发展以及西方有60%的女性更愿意和动物睡觉而不是男人这个事实,正是西方着装规定的缺失和女性的性意识觉醒的门槛降低的后果。”他告诉库姆(伊朗西北部城市)神学院旗下的新闻通讯社。

He did not specify the source of this figure, but referred to the provocative nature of women’s hair. “It is said that the Prophet Mohammad stated that women’s hair sexually arouses men,” he said, conceded that “perhaps modern science has not proven this” but “it was said by somebody who only speaks the truth.”


Invoking one of the less frequently discussed rationales for imposed dress codes, Bayati also said that “the absence of hejab lowers the libido of men and this would not benefit women.”


Iranian clerics have long promoted Islamic hejab by arguing about sexual corruption or deviance in the West, but one of the strangest comments came earlier this year from the cleric Mohammad-Mehdi Mandegary, a member of ultra-conservative Endurance Front and the head of an organization called Foundation for Promoting the Way of the Martyrs.

伊朗的教士长期以来一直通过对西方的性堕落或者说性越轨行为的抨击进而来提倡伊斯兰教的着装规范,其中最奇怪的说法之一是今年早些时候由Mohammad-Mehdi Mandegary提出的,他是极端保守忍耐阵线的一员,同时也是“发扬殉道者之路基金会”的领导者。


Western satellite television can even pollute an embryo


He declared that relations between Western women are sexually promiscuous in a manner not even found in the natural world. “In the West when one woman has relations with several men, they take pride in it,” he said. “But animals are different and a female of the species does not have relations with several males at the same time.”


Mandegary, like many hardliners, believes Iranian culture has become too Westernized and distant from true Islamic culture. In a speech he asked Iranian men and women to abstain from sex after watching satellite TV so that the embryo would not be polluted by the banality. “Unfortunately some people are not careful about the moment of conception,” he said in warning. “They do it after watching satellite TV and listening to inappropriate music. But all this affects the embryo.”

跟许多强硬派一样, Mandegary认为伊朗文化已经被过分西化并且远离了真正的伊斯兰文化。在一次演讲中,他呼吁伊朗的男女在看完卫星电视之后不要发生关系,这样就可以使胎儿免于腐朽事物的污染。“不幸的是有一些人并不重视受孕的那一刻,”他警告说,“他们在看完卫星电视之后做爱并且听一些不合适的音乐。但是这些都会影响胎儿。”

Even leggings have been pulled into the fray. Recently tight leg apparel has become the focus of controversy among Islamic Republic officials, and were even brought to the floor of parliament by the Tehran MP Ali Motahari. In an open session he displayed pictures of women in leggings and argued in remarks broadcast on television that “sexual deviations, homosexuality and bestiality are results of unbridled behavior and the trampling of morality, which hejab would prevent.”

甚至连打底裤都被牵连进了这场争论。最近紧身服装已经成为伊朗官员们争论的焦点,并且还被德黑兰议员Ali Motahari展示给了伊朗议会的所有与会者,在一次公开的会议中,他展示了一些穿打底裤的女性的照片,并且在电视直播中争辩道:“性变态,同性恋以及人兽性交都是放纵行为以及践踏道德的后果,而头巾可以防止这些”


Americans even kiss differently


Another bizarre comment comes from Mohsen Gharaati, a cleric who is the representative of the Supreme Leader at the Literacy Campaign and a frequent TV personality. In a speech he declared that “Westerners have been cheated when it comes to sex.” He then compared a kiss between an American boy and girl with the kisses that he used to get from his grandmother.

另一种奇怪的言论来自Mohsen Gharaati,文化运动中最高领袖的代表同时也是一位经常上电视的电视名人。再一次演讲中他说道:“在涉及到性的方面时,西方人被愚弄了。”他接着把美国男孩女孩之间的接吻同他的祖母经常对他的亲吻做了比较。

“When I was in America, I saw boys and girls who were kissing each other but it was as though they were kissing a brick wall,” he said. “The kisses were not solid because perhaps this was the 96th person they were kissing that day. But when our grandmother kissed us it felt like she was sucking us in.” When the audience laughed he added that “they think freedom would benefit them but they were cheated.”


I turned to Hasan Yousefi Eshkevari, a reformist cleric who spent three years in prison for his political positions, to help me understand the religious or social context for such views. “These words astonish me as much as they amaze you,” he said. “I ask myself whether these gentleman are delusional or have been given wrong information. But I cannot find a clear answer for such nonsense."

Hasan Yousefi Eshkevari,一位主张改革的教士并且曾因他的政治主张而入狱三年,我向他请教,帮我找到这种观点的宗教或者社会方面的背景。“这些话不仅使你,也同样使我十分惊讶,”他说,“我不知道他们是在欺骗大众或者是得到的消息有误。但是对于这些胡言乱语我(无论从社会方面还是宗教方面都)找不到一个合理的解释”


A sensible cleric’s view


Eshkevari noted that such views have a long history, and cited Abolhassan Banisadr, the first president of the Islamic Republic, who returned from Paris and justified imposed hejab by saying that ‘women’s hair radiates a spark that arouses men.’

Eshkevari注意到,这类观点在很早以前就有了,并且举出一个例子——伊朗首任总统Abolhassan Banisadr,他从巴黎回国之后说:“女性的头发散发着一种刺激男性性欲的气质”通过这来证明强制要求佩戴头巾是正确的。

Banisadr, according to Eshkevari, also interpreted a Koranic verse to mean that some women aroused when beaten. Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi interpreted the same verse in the same way about seven years ago, Eshkevari says, concluding that physical harm arouses some women. “If an Islamic thinker and a Western-educated man such as Banisadr resorts to everything to justify himself, what do you expect from Ayatollah Shirazi?” Eshkevari said.

据Eshkevari说,Banisadr还把《古兰经》中的一个章节诠释为“当女性被打时,她们的性欲会被激起”,“伊朗伊斯兰教什叶派领袖Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi在七年前也用相同的方法解释了同一章节,” Eshkevari说,“并且得出结论:人身伤害会激起一些女性的性欲。”“如果一个伊斯兰教的思想家,并且接受过西方的教育,像是Banisadr,都不择手段地来证明自己是正确的,那么对于Ayatollah Shirazi还能有什么期待呢?”他说道。

But it is not only clerics and Islamic ideologues who use offensive words and images to describe the sexual life of Westerners. Last winter the commander of the Basij paramilitary force General Naghdi used this theme to criticize nuclear negotiations with the Americans. “Thirty-five percent of babies who are born in America are bastards,” he said, without citing a source for his statistics.



All manner of Godlessness in the West


A few months later Hassan Rahimpour Azghadi, a member of Iran's Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution, went even further in a speech about human rights. “In Western societies 75 percent of children do not know their fathers and are raised by their mothers,” he told his audience. Defending death by stoning he asked “Why do Western countries consider this punishment against human rights?” He answered his own question by saying that “there are no sexual complexes in Islam because in Islam marriage makes faith complete whereas in Christianity marriage is not a godly affair.”

几个月之后,伊朗文化革命最高委员会成员之一Hassan Rahimpour Azghadi进行了一次更深层次的关于人权的演讲,他告诉听众:“在西方社会,有75%的孩子是完全由母亲抚养长大的,他们不知道自己的父亲是谁。”为了给石刑(注:一种钝击致死的死刑执行方式,即埋入沙土用乱石砸死)辩护,他问道:“为什么西方国家认为这种刑罚违背了人权?”他自问自答的说道:“伊朗没有混乱的性关系是因为在伊朗,婚姻给人以彻底的信念(生活下去),而基督教的婚姻却不是一件神圣的事情。”

Last month Hassan Abbasi, the head of the Center for Doctrinal Strategic Studies in the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps and a theoretician in the office of Supreme Leader, claimed that the “Western human rights approves of incest. Incest is very rare in animals but the Western man has debased himself so much that he supports incest as a human right.”

上个月,伊斯兰革命卫队的宗教战略所的带头人、最高领袖办公室的专家组成员之一Hassan Abbasi讲到:“西方所谓的人权提倡乱伦,而乱伦即使在动物界中也很少见,但西方人却自取其辱的把乱伦也认为是人的一种权利。”

“In America 100 percent of men have free sexual relations after marriage,” he said in another speech, which was aired on TV. “While in Iran perhaps two men out of ten thousand might marry a second wife. Listen to them shout about equality between men and women.”



Abbasi then referred to Anousheh Ansari, an Iranian-American astronaut and the first Iranian woman in space. “The basis of the Shi’a thought is chastity and the West uses women to destroy Shi’ism. Why did they send this woman Anousheh Ansari into space with a few men? They want to kill chastity. This is the main plank of feminism and feminism is the foundation of American lifestyle.”

Abbasi接下来又提到了Anousheh Ansari,一个伊朗裔美籍女宇航员并且是第一个进入太空的伊朗女性。“什叶派的基本思想就是(保持)贞洁,而西方却通过女人来破坏什叶派的教义。他们为什么会把Anousheh Ansari这个女人和几个男性宇航员一块送入太空?他们想消灭贞洁。这也是女权运动的基本纲领并且女权主义又是美国生活方式的基础”

Reading and researching such statements, I wonder how widely held such attitudes still are today, among mainstream Iranians. On a whim I went on Facebook and searched for my old school counselor, who in her profile picture still wears hejab but not as strictly as in those days.


I noticed a picture of her daughter, who was our classmate, and out of curiosity visited her page. She was not wearing hejab but more surprising that that, is married to an Englishman. I was reminded of what her mother, the school counselor, told us so many years ago: “Ninety percent of Westerners have sexual problems. They are not aroused and most of them have relations with animals.”